Today in History, 20 October 1818: Under Monroe’s first term as president, Britain and the U.S. signed the Treaty of 1818, which established the boundary between U.S. and Canadian territories at the 49th parallel.
Also known as the “Convention respecting fisheries, boundary and the restoration of slaves,” the Treaty secured fishing rights for U.S. fishermen along Newfoundland and Labrador, provided for joint control of Oregon territory, and marked the beginning of better relations between Britain and the U.S. (although a later struggle for control of Oregon would cause some strife). It also paved the way for smooth relations between the U.S. and Canada.
This was the last major permanent loss of territory for the U.S., as it ceded the northernmost tip of the Louisiana Territory.
Find out more about the Treaty of 1818 here.